Methods in Enzymology Vol.173 Biomembranes, Part T: Cellular and Subcellular Transport

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    admin Thư Viện Sách Việt Staff Member Quản Trị Viên

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    The lamellar configuration of the red cell membrane includes a (liquid) superficial bilayer of amphiphilic molecules supported by a (rigid) subsurface protein meshwork. Because of this composite structure, the red cell membrane exhibits very large resistance to changes in surface density or area with very low resistance to in-plane extension and bending deformations. The primary extrinsic factor in cell deformability is the surface area-to-volume ratio which establishes the minimum-caliber vessel into which a cell can deform (without rupture). Within the restriction provided by surface area and volume, the intrinsic properties of the membrane and cytoplasm determine the deformability characteristics of the red cell. Since the cytoplasm is liquid, the static rigidity of the cell is determined by membrane elastic constants. These include an elastic modulus for area compressibility in the range of 300–600 dyn/cm, an elastic modulus for in-plane extension or shear (at constant area) of 5–7 × 10−3 dyn/cm, and a curvature or bending elastic modulus on the order of 10−12 dyn · cm. Even though small, the surface rigidity of the cell membrane is sufficient to return the membrane capsule to a discoid shape after deformation by external forces. Viscous dissipation in the peripheral protein structure (cytoskeleton) dominates the dynamic response of the cell to extensional forces. Based on a time constant for recovery after extensional deformation on the order of 0.1 sec, the coefficient of surface viscosity is on the order of 10−3 dyn · sec/cm. On the other hand, the dynamic resistance to folding of the cell appears to be limited by viscous dissipation in the cytoplasmic and external fluid phases. Dynamic rigidities for both extensional and folding deformations are important factors in the distribution of flow in the small microvessels. Although the red cell membrane normally behaves as a resilient viscoelastic shell, which recovers its conformation after deformation, structural relaxation and failure lead to break-up and fragmentation of the red cell. The levels of membrane extensional force required to extrude material from the cell are on the order of 0.1 dyn/cm, which is two orders of magnitude less than the level of tension necessary to lyse vesicles by rapid area dilation. Each of the material properties ascribed to the red cell membrane plays an important role in the deformability and survivability of the red cell in the circulation over its several-month life span.
    • Series: Methods in Enzymology
    • Hardcover: 842 pages
    • Publisher: Academic Press;
    • Language: English
    • ISBN-10: 0121820742
    • ISBN-13: 978-0121820749
    • Product Dimensions: 1.5 x 6.5 x 9.5 inches
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    Last edited: Nov 26, 2021

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